States of Matter

  • 7 states of matter – Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Bose Einstein Condensate, Fermionic, Condensate, Quark Gluon Plasma.
  • Al ultra high temperature matter exist in Plasma form.
  • Molecules are seen in most irregular form in Plasma State.
  • Theory of classification of fundamental particles and how they interact is known as Standard Model 
  • Number of Elementary particles in standard model – 12
  • 99% of matter in the universe is in plasma form
  • Any Particle made up of quarks and Gluons are called as Hadrons
  • Hadrons are categorized in to two – Mesons and Baryons
  • The most stable form of hadrons are – Protons and Neutrons
  • Energy carriers in the matter are known as – Bosons
  • Bosons which carry strong nuclear force – Gluons
  • Fundemental particle which is known as ‘God Particle’ – Higgs Boson
  • Particle which gives the property of mass to matter is – Higgs Boson
  • The term ‘God Particle’ was first coined by – Leon M. Lederman
  • The term ‘Boson’ was first coined by – Paul Dirac
  • The word ‘Quark was coined by – Murray Gell Mane
  • Worlds largest highest energy particle accelerator – LHC (27 Kms in Circumferance)
  • LHC is located in – Geneva (Switzerland)
  • LHC is operated by – CERN
  • CERN is a European Organization for Nuclear Research.
  • Purpose of LHC – To investigate and understand why there is a discovery of life and Universe.


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